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Social Justice Series: Theresa Runstedtler on Race and Drugs in the NBA

When picturing professional athletes it can be easy to picture affluent, privileged individuals—most often men—with the means to live extraordinarily extravagant lives. This picture can involve a wide variety of ethnicities, and while many immediately imagine a male bodied individual, others may envision a woman as the archetype for competitive athletics. However, if I were to discuss a connection between drug use and professional athletes, the image offered by media becomes almost entirely limited to black, male athletes. In discussing the connection between drug use and professional athletes, Theresa Runstedtler suggests this connection is more than a coincidence, and is instead the result of deliberately oppressive history.

As part of the continuing Social Justice Series Runstedtler drew on a chapter from a book she is writing to discuss the formations of race, gender, and class in the history of sports. These issues were specifically addressed through the lens of drug use and control within the NBA. While many discussions of the same topic begin with the death of Len Bias in 1986 to a cocaine overdose, these discussions miss the history of racial exploitation leading up to his death.

While the death of such a famous figure has been used to validate increasing sanctions on drug use in sports, these laws were instituted much earlier. Players within the NBA had long since become dependent on drugs to cope with the demands of their sport, and in many cases coaches and staff would offer drugs to players directly. Only when franchise owners and NBA promoters were faced with the dilemma of marketing newly introduced black players to a largely white fan base did drug use become a target for public scorn.

First by vilifying the use of drugs, and then by associating its use with individual black players and their communities of origin the NBA was able to draw attention away from its formerly liberal attitude towards amphetamines. Additionally, this move allowed for greater control over players’ actions and therefore more direct control over the primary source of income for the Association. Under the name of pure sportsmanship and player safety, African American athletes in the NBA have been targeted as a means of shifting blame away from those in control, as well as maintaining a positive public image for the sport as a whole. Without a critical eye the circumstances surrounding the façade of drug use and black athletes is accepted as reality. As we continue to see signs of additional false narratives careful analysis like that given by Runstedtler and many others at the Social Justice Series become increasingly valuable.

 

Check out our Social Justice Series Website to learn about our upcoming speakers.

Check out the Masters in Public Anthropology Website to learn more about the MAPA program.


Meet thejoshua-schea-300 Writers:
 Joshua Schea is a PhD. student at American University researching urban private schools. His research is focuses on the question of how private schools address the issue of inequality as it exists in their surrounding environment. Joshua is currently in his second year at AU.

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Social Justice Series: The Refugee Crisis and How You Can Help

We can all do something. This was the message delivered by the Frederick Douglass Distinguished Scholars at the Social Justice Colloquium on February 27th. Faced with the near endless barrage of crises visible to anyone with a television or smartphone, these young scholars sought to encourage action in whatever way possible to address the current refugee crisis. In light of recent political actions taken in our country, it is imperative that those who seek to alleviate the current catastrophe both understand the situation and commit themselves to making a difference.

After providing a brief history of the Syrian Civil War that began in 2011 and has fueled the refugee crisis, the Frederick Douglass Distinguished Scholars described the role transit routes and national boundaries have played. The Balkan Route—originally the most frequently used avenue from Turkey to Germany—has been the focal point of several aggravations to the crisis.  The route runs through Greece, both amplifying the pre-existing financial stresses in the country as well as provoking refugees to continue on to countries such as Germany where they are more likely to find employment. This route has been made particularly impassable since the border between Macedonia and Greece has closed, resulting in many deportations which in turn simply add to the growing crisis as those people attempt the same journey a second, third, or even fourth time.

The lock down of so-called transitory states such as Greece has created a scenario in which the number of stateless persons has grown to an estimated 10 million individuals, with roughly 300,000 refugees arriving every month in Greece. As more and more people pour into the country refugee camps have grown exponentially, and on a trip to one such camp the Frederick Douglass Scholars saw up-close  the terrible conditions and lack of aid present within these camps. Having gained access to the camp through the U.N., the scholars sought to provide aid in whatever way they could, and learned a lot about the crisis first hand as well as how to help those in need. Yet, the message they came home with was to never do what they did.

Rather than attempting to serve through a large NGO or the U.N., both legitimizing their lack of direct action and granting support to that sort of organization, the Scholars suggested everyone find a way to support smaller grassroots groups. One grassroots group mentioned several times was the Elpida home, and in their conclusion the Scholars called for anyone who could to offer support from where they are. Although visiting these camps by volunteering for the U.N. can give good face time to some organizations the groups suggested some more effective methods for aiding in this crisis. Offering volunteer support to local refugee organizations or providing monetary support to overseas, grassroots organizations truly seeking to change the current state of affairs and grant relief to the millions of refugees desperately in need of something different might actually be more helpful than traveling to the camps themselves. As legislative action taken by the current U.S. administration continues to aggravate the crisis, effective action is needed, and all those who can help are being called to grant support to those who are already trying to change their own lives for the better.

 

Check out our Social Justice Series Website to learn about our upcoming speakers.

Check out the Masters in Public Anthropology Website to learn more about the MAPA program.


joshua-schea-300Meet the Writers: Joshua Schea is a PhD. student at American University researching urban private schools. His research is focuses on the question of how private schools address the issue of inequality as it exists in their surrounding environment. Joshua is currently in his second year at AU

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Social Justice Series: Sentient AI, Intimacy, and Ethics

Have you ever wondered what ethical dilemmas would become apparent with the introduction of sentient artificial intelligence? Or perhaps more specifically, what problems might lie in having intimate relationships with sentient robots? These are the questions asked by Rebecca Gibson at the Social Justice Colloquium of February 6th where she delved into a number of issues almost exclusively discussed in science fiction. Thanks to the research of those like Rebecca, we can be prepared for the Valentine ’s Day in the future when these issues become a reality.

Rebecca Gibson is a PhD candidate at American University, whose dissertation research is focused on the impact of corsetry on skeletons, yet as evidenced by the topic of this article, her interests are incredibly diverse. She became interested in the ethics of artificial intelligence due to the lack of information on the topic. Her work on this topic has already been published and discussed elsewhere, and is driven by the universal question in Anthropology—what does it mean to be human? Once this question and some of the answers it has received are applied to the concept of artificial intelligence where does the discussion lead us?

Beginning by discussing the philosophers of past centuries, Gibson pointed out that being human has meant a number of things to different people. For Descartes the ability to think granted some sort of personhood, while for Levi-Straus this identity came from our ability to tell stories pieced together from individual experiences. But how do we determine the presence of personhood in created humanoid AI, as we see so often in Sci-Fi literature and film?

Rachel, for example, from the Blade Runner film or its print precursor Do Androids Dream of Electric Sheep? is a humanoid robot who is unaware of her existence as a created object, and is therefore convinced of her own personhood.  Data, an Android form the famous Star Trek franchise is also an example of artificial intelligence, yet he is completely aware of this fact and exhibits emotions, tells stories, owns a cat, most definitely thinks, and, at one point, becomes “intimate” with a human officer aboard the same star ship. What criteria can be used to judge whether these two individuals are indeed persons, regardless of whether they know how they came to be?

For Rebecca, this discussion brings up themes of sentience, free will, and agency. Sentience and free will are difficult to pin down even in the case of known humans; yet agency, or the ability to make decisions, was more suited to our 45 minute discussion. Humans make decisions every day, about what to eat, what to wear, and who to be with. But how would an artificially created being make decisions, and further, would this decision making power be enough to qualify as a person?

The characters discussed above, as well as some others such as Eva from the film Ex Machina exhibit the ability to make their own decisions. What does this mean for their interactions with human beings? As creations, should these androids and robots be relegated to a servile existence as inhuman objects? Or does their ability to make a choice give them the right to do just that?

This question becomes particularly important in the case of sexual companionship, and how to address the issue has not been definitively solved. Rebecca Gibson’s presentation did not seek to answer all of the relevant questions, but simply to open the floor to discussing the possibility of artificial intelligence before it becomes a reality. This future may be closer than we realize, and having discussions such as this about ethics may help prevent pain suffering on the part of any future created intelligence.

 

Check out our Social Justice Series Website to learn about our upcoming speakers.

Check out the Masters in Public Anthropology Website to learn more about the MAPA program.

Meet the Wrijoshua-schea-300ters: Joshua Schea is a PhD student at American University researching urban private schools. His research focuses on the question of how private schools address the issue of inequality as it exists in their surrounding environment. Joshua is currently in his second year at AU

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Social Justice Series: Neofascism Knocking at the Door

There has been a great deal of discussion about the recent presidential election, with many people attempting to understand what made this such a unique moment in our countries history. Some, however, have suggested that although the events of the past months appear so removed from our past they can be more effectively understood when compared to the experiences of other nations. Dr. Ali Erol made just this sort of comparison in this year’s first Social Justice Colloquium, discussing contemporary fascism, the state of affairs in Turkey, and the parallels emerging within our own country.

Dr. Erol, a lecturer in the School of International Service used his research in Turkey to explain certain aspects of Trump’s presidency. Recep Edrogan is the current president of Turkey, and came into office in 2002. Dr. Erol suggested that the policies used by Edrogan to gain and hold on to power can be seen already in use by President Trump. Ultimately, these two administrations exemplify a new wave of neo-fascism in contemporary international politics, identifiable by the strategies employed by leaders such as Edrogan and Trump.

The first strategy discussed by Dr. Erol is the implementation of Neo-Liberal ideology as a tool of a fascist agenda. While Fascism relies on nostalgic memories of a better time from the past in order to legitimize control, Neoliberalism promotes personal choice as the catalyst for making a better future. These two ideas appear at odds, but the tension allowed Edrogan distract those in Turkey from the gradual buildup of power afforded to his position. Here in the U.S. the current administration encourages citizens to join in making a better future grounded in the past—a confusing agenda that is made simple by the call to “make America great again”.

Dr. Erol pointed out further similarities in the creation and treatment of categories of “undesirables”. In the case of Edrogan the term terrorist was used to describe opposition to his regime, simultaneously delegitimizing their authority and giving credence to the constant state of emergency currently in place, giving the administration in Turkey its vast authority. The Trump administration has employed very similar tactics, using words such as vandals, extremists, and paid agents to discredit any resistance.

These similarities and more exist between the two administrations, including the justification of violence and attempts to control the media. Yet Dr. Erol ended the talk by suggesting a number of ways events could go differently here. By learning from the mistakes made in Turkey, we can prevent similar events from taking place. By taking the opportunity now to engage in grassroots movements, to provide alternative narratives through discourse, and by focusing opposition on particular issues history can be kept from repeating itself. As exemplified in the events surrounding the recent travel ban, these steps are both necessary and still within our power.

 

Join us every Monday at 4PM in the Battelle Humanities Lab for the Social Justice Series.

Check out our Social Justice Series Website to learn about our upcoming speakers.

Check out the Masters in Public Anthropology Website to learn more about the MAPA program.

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Meet the Writers: Joshua Schea is a PhD. student at American University researching urban private schools. His research is focuses on the question of how private schools address the issue of inequality as it exists in their surrounding environment. Joshua is currently in his second year at AU.

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Excavating the Past: A Look Into the Lives of Transient Workers

Imagine spending several weeks rediscovering forgotten people, letting them tell you about their life and their struggles, and then bringing that story to the rest of the world. This is exactly how Justin Uehlein and a team of American University students spent their summer, excavating a site in Southern Pennsylvania. Justin is a PhD. Student working on his Dissertation and he led a group of 2 graduate students and 3 undergraduates on a field school at a hobo jungle where he is currently conducting research.

This was an incredible opportunity for students to learn first-hand about excavation methods in the field of Archeology. Several of the students participating in the field school had never had any Archeological experience, and the field school allowed them to work closely with Justin and his advisor Dr. Daniel Sayers.

Justin’s research involves researching transient laborers in capitalist society, and in specific he has focused on hobos in the United States during the 19th and 20th centuries. The site of his dissertation work is a hobo jungle, or camp, located next to a river under a trestle bridge near Delta Pennsylvania. The field school offered students the opportunity to see the way hobo jungles would appear where there was access to transportation and available work, such as the quarry in Delta.

Justin has used this insight to develop a predictive model for locating additional hobo jungles, which he has already used to test 26 sites across the northeastern United States.  This model could lead to a larger project detailing the experience of transient laborers who lived at these sites, and Justin hopes this will provide research opportunities for graduate and undergraduate students going forward. Even now, some students are taking full advantage of this research to advance their own work.

Margaret (Maggie) Stone is a master’s student who participated in the field school this summer, and she has used the experience to frame her graduate research. Maggie has begun developing a website which focuses on the Delta hobo site, and “gives a rundown of Archeological process and what it looks like in the field”. This website will serve as part of her final research project, and when completed will give individuals the opportunity to explore the exciting discoveries at the Delta site, as well as learn more about the discipline of Archeology.

Justin presented this research at the weekly Social Justice Colloquium. By presenting this work in a variety of formats, Justin, Maggie, and others who have contributed to the research seek to clarify the relationship between transient laborers such as hobos and the capitalist system. The necessary and undesirable condition of transient labor no longer bears the same appearance of hobos from the early 20th century. However, by better understanding how hobos lived and sought after work we may gain a better understanding how people seek out temporary work today.

 

If you are interested in learning more about the work students at AU do or about the public anthropology program you can check out our MAPA page.

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The Question of Hope in Palestinian Resistance

The Social Justice Series continued this week with guest speaker Irene Calis. Calis recently relocated to the DC area from Rhodes University in South Africa. She is an anthropologist concerned with issues of social justice and has focused much of her work on the ongoing resistance struggle in Palestine.

Calis’s talk “Hope against the evidence? The Underside of Resistance Politics in Palestine” explores the struggle of emancipatory politics through the reality of everyday life in an oppressive regime.  

Palestinians, particularly those in the Northwest region where Calis focused much of her work, face consistently harshening conditions. The confining reality of life within the Israeli state security apparatus means the continued loss of daily freedoms, limited access to water and land, and constant reminders of one’s own mortality.

Calis asks the question, “What does it mean to survive?” While many of the research and humanitarian narratives coming out of Palestine are imbued with a sense of hope and an optimistic stance on the power of resistance, Calis’s talk suggests instead that hope is imposed on those narratives by the researchers.

The Palestinian reality that Calis has recorded tells a much different story. While many of the participants in her research are involved in resistance efforts, they also struggle with chronic stress and collective despair. They are surrounded by constant threats of violence and death to themselves and their loved ones. The reminders of those they have already lost to the resistance are ever-present. Many of them, particularly those in the younger generation, wonder if they have any future at all.

What does it mean to fight for a more just tomorrow if you don’t actually believe tomorrow will come? What does it mean to build a resistance when you are uncertain of having any future at all? How do you keep surviving when survival doesn’t seem likely? These are the tensions that Palestinians in the fertile plains are constantly negotiating; and Calis is hoping to bring them to the forefront of resistance politics.

For those of us who plan on doing our own research alongside communities resisting and  suffering through structural violence, Calis’s presentation was an important reminder. The experiences we aim to capture are complex and nuanced. To imbue them with a false sense of hope could erase the reality of peoples’ lived experiences. If we are analyzing violent systems then we must acknowledge how that violence shapes people’s everyday lives. If we can’t recognize the despair and trauma that exist in these situations then we run the risk of not understanding the necessity of ending these violences.

 

Interested in learning more about social justice and public anthropology? We’d love to see you at our next event. For a list of future speakers please see the Social Justice Series. If you’d like to learn more about our program, please check out the Public Anthropology page.

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The Art of Social Justice

The weekly Social Justice Colloquium continues to offer the opportunity for insightful dialogue on Monday afternoons in the Battelle Thompkins humanities lab. This week attendees were able to experience firsthand the potential for artistic expression to grapple with issues of social justice. The three presenters this week, Caleen Jennings, Sybil Roberts, and Cara Gabriel, each showcased brief excerpts from their dramatic or spoken works, before explaining the context in which the pieces were created.

Sybil opened by reciting an excerpt from her piece titled, “I am a Drum”. This emotional piece is based upon historical events and follows the experience of Naphtali, a young pregnant woman who was violently abused by police officers before being taken into custody. Naphtali was participating in a peaceful demonstration, and through the dramatic voice of Sybil her unjust treatment at the hands of officers of the law could be felt secondhand by those in attendance.

Cara Gabriel also delivered an excerpt from her own original work, this time a part of her play “I am the Gentry”, which chronicles her own lived experiences in a particular neighborhood. Alternating between humor and sober reflection, this excerpt gave an alternative perspective to the issues of urban development, and through analogy compared the treatment of the neighborhood to that of an abandoned dog, who’s past is disregarded and is instead dealt with only in the present.

Finally, Caleen Jennings gave a powerful performance, drawing on an excerpt from her piece “Prevention”. She began by describing a child who has been neglected, but as the child grows up it becomes apparent that he is, in fact, a perpetrator of gun violence. As this fact is revealed to the audience, Cara Gabriel and Sybil Roberts distribute pictures of those convicted of armed violence in this country with a plain script that read “number of victims.” The end of Dr. Jennings’ performance was delivered amongst a flurry of small photographs which were scattered about the room, each one a picture of actual victims of gun violence.

The power of what these three women delivered this week lies not only in their considerable talent as artists; but also in their dedication to furthering social justice. Each piece was meant to elicit an emotional response, something that is often impossible through ethnographic or other academic writing. For an example of their work, you can watch this video of Caleen Jennings delivering a performance on American University’s campus.

 

Interested in learning more about social justice and public anthropology? We’d love to see you at our next event. For a list of future speakers please see the Social Justice Series. If you’d like to learn more about our program, please check out the Public Anthropology page.

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In Case You Missed It: The Social Justice Series

This year’s Social Justice Series is in full swing at American University. It kicked off on September 19th with Professor Cathy Schneider. The series highlights the work of anthropologists who are committed to issues of social justice. Many of the speakers are from our own AU community or nearby schools. It’s a fantastic opportunity to learn about current research projects and see what public anthropology looks like in action. If you haven’t been able to join us yet this semester check out the summaries below for all the speakers you’ve missed.

 

Cathy Schneider, Associate Professor in the School of International Service at American University, kicked off the Social Justice Colloquium series with her talk Perceived Powerlessness and Riots. Professor Schneider began researching racialized policing and riots several years ago after police violence in France caused riots while she was living in the country. Since then she has travelled to Ferguson, Baltimore, and NYC to interview family members of people murdered by the police and activists organizing in their communities. With this topic now at the forefront our country’s social justice agenda, Schneider is attempting to shed light on some of the mystery surrounding community riots by examining community relations with police forces, relevant legislation and community activism,  and the occurrence of riots in some cities but not all. Professor Schneider recently published a book on the topic entitled Police Power and Race Riots: Urban Unrest in Paris and New York.

Tracy Howard, Assistant Professor of Sociology and Anthropology at Howard University, joined us for the second SJC to speak about the origins of the environmental justice movement. Dr. Howard challenged current understandings of the movement including the common and powerful narrative that the movement began with a protest in Warren County, NC. While Howard acknowledges the significance of this moment as an important union between the civil rights and environmental justice movements she suggests that the beginnings of the origins are actually far more complex. She points to separate activist movements, the majority of which took place in California without knowledge of Warren County, as evidence of this complexity. In reality, she argued, the environmental justice movement started as a grassroots, multi-racial coalition that was willing to commit mass civil disobedience in effort to meet the needs of their communities.

An integral part of the American University Anthropology department, Dr. Dolores Koenig presented at our third SJC event. Dr. Koenig has pursued social justice as a professor at the school since 1980. Her writing and research have recently focused on involuntary resettlement due to infrastructure development, and at the October 3rd colloquium she shared some of her research concerning displacement due to the Manantali Dam on the Bafing River in Western Mali. Her presentation highlighted many of the ways resettlement on this project sought to serve the interests of those forced to leave their homes, while also recognizing the inadequacy of the land provided to effectively sustain the population for more than a few years. She spoke to the ways in which recognizing the needs, as well as the perceptions of populations facing forced resettlement is necessary in the pursuit of social justice.

 

If you’d like to know more about our upcoming speakers you can check out the list here. The Social Justice Series takes place every Monday at 4pm in Battelle 228. Coffee and light refreshments are always served. In consideration of the environment, please bring your mug. We look forward to seeing you there!

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Elijah Adiv Edelman: Joining us at the Social Justice Colloquium October 10

Dr. Elijah Adiv Edelman is a graduate of the AU PhD program in anthropology and now teaches at Rhode Island College. On Monday, October 10, he will join us at the Social Justice Colloquium to give the talk “Trans and Queer Anthropology: Activism, Academia and Community.”

In this discussion, Elijah will address how to do activist-engaged anthropological work. He will especially focus on how students and academics working in Trans and Queer-specific anthropological inquiry can partner with LGBT activists and communities of practice. He’ll introduce us to international and U.S. case studies that serve as examples of both best practices and inequities in conversations around LGBT civil rights.

The conversation will be active, with participant invited to brainstorm ways of shifting or reformulating our own research practices, and we thought it might be helpful to introduce you to Elijah before his talk. We reached out to him over email to learn more about his research, his time at AU, and what he’s up to now.

 

The evolution of Elijah’s research interests

There has always been a close relationship between Elijah’s activist interests and his work as an anthropologist. “My graduate school research interests really emerged out of my activist interests, which, in turn, further informed both my graduate and post-graduate work,” Elijah said.

During Elijah’s time in DC, most of his work focused on issues facing trans communities in the metro area. “By virtue of the communities I worked with, this led to my work taking a turn towards looking at how the loss of life—in this context trans women of color—may be seen as not terribly important due to institutionalized anti-blackness, transphobia and the hypercriminalization of trans women’s bodies,” he said.

Now, in Providence, Elijah’s work focuses more on public health and the accessibility of harm reduction materials to sex workers, as well as on general public access to HIV/STI testing.

“I teach courses on sex and sexuality (as well as queer and trans anthropology!). It was only through the continued support of my AU advisor, Bill Leap, that I felt encouraged to work on and towards issues that, at the time, were not terribly hot topics in anthropology,” Elijah said.

 

What does activist-engaged anthropological work look like?

Elijah’s work pursues questions about how community-based concerns and activism can be addressed in academic-based projects.

“I think one of the biggest challenges to activist engaged anthropology, or any kind of social science research, is that the process itself can take real time,” Elijah said.

A researcher can write a survey and get it out within months. But if the researcher wants that same survey to include questions generated by community members and framed in ways that support community needs, and then to test the questions in the community, the timeline increases to upwards of a year.

“While this means that getting the ‘data’ can take time, that entire process is a key element of cultivating truly meaningful relationships between the ‘researcher’ and the ‘researched,’” Elijah said.

A profound example of this came out of a series of roundtables Elijah and trans community researchers conducted with DC trans community members between 2010 and 2011, reaching a total of 109 trans community members.

This was followed up with a large, community-produced 81-question needs assessment survey, with community-led data collection running between 2012 through 2013. Upon closing in May 2013, 624 surveys were completed with a total of 521 surveys qualifying for inclusion in the data analysis. To date, this is the largest city-based, trans-specific needs assessment survey in U.S. history. The final report outlining these findings, ‘Access Denied,’ was released in November 2014, and is available for free download here.

“We (the researchers) learned that many young trans feminine folks of color would often find community in spaces that police identified as areas of ‘prostitution’. This resulted in many, many young trans women of color being wrongly charged with solicitation, being forced to move into areas with less traffic and less safety and, in some cases, it resulted in their murder,” Elijah explained.

“In short, while the police (and perhaps the broader ‘lgb’ community) might have seen groups of young trans women of color in sex worker spaces as evidence of sex work, this community-informed research allowed for those with institutional privilege to go to local community organizations, and even to city council, and make it clear that not all ‘LGBT’ organizations are inclusive of trans folks and not all trans folks will go to the same places to find community.”

The work had a concrete impact on legislation. The legislation that allowed for pre-emptive arrests of people who merely appeared to be engaging in sex work because of their presence in “prostitution free zones” was declared legally questionable and is no longer carried out in DC.

“This was a profound win on many levels and a fantastic reminder of the importance of community-based research,” Elijah said.

 

Snagging a tenure-track position after the Ph.D.

After his time at AU, Elijah managed to find something a lot of anthropology PhD students seek: a tenure-track teaching position at a school he loves.

“I found my current faculty position at RIC through the nightmare process that is the academic job market! I was very, very fortunate to have been offered a tenure-track position at an institution like RIC,” Elijah said.

Rhode Island College is the only public college in the state (though there is also a community college and a university). RIC students are majority first-generation college students, and many work full-time jobs in addition to going to school.

“The students are in the classroom because they want to be there and I think this really translates into a level of investment that isn’t terribly common in many spaces in higher education,” Elijah said. “We cap our classes around 20-30 students and tuition works out to be around seven thousand dollars a year for a full course load. Our faculty, adjuncts and staff are all unionized and are paid truly living wages. I am beyond grateful that I landed where I did!”

He advises students who share his interests in gender, sex, and sexuality to pursue experiences outside the academy in addition to their studies. “I think these issues are really extremely ‘hot’ topics not just in higher education but also in NGO work, public health work, and community justice work. Having experience in those areas is definitely a good thing,” he said.

 

Our students’ experiences in the MAPA program lead them to real-world accomplishments and launch their careers. Find out more about the master’s degree in public anthropology.